What to Record when referencing?

Record as much information as possible in references to make finding the original work simple. These are often used by the best paper writers for hire.

Author/s – Include the author/s name/s where possible.  You should write the surname (last name) first followed by any initials.  If there are more than three authors then you can cite the first author and use the abbreviation ‘et al’, meaning ‘and all’.

Date of Publication – You should include the year of publication or a more specific date if appropriate, for journal or newspaper articles/stories.  For webpages look for the when the page was last updated.  Include dates in brackets (2015) after author information. If no date can be established then put (no date).Academic Writing

Title of Piece – Include the title of the piece; this could be the name of the book, the title of a journal article or webpage.  Titles are usually written in italics.  For books you should also include the edition (if not the first) to make finding information easier.  Often when books are republished information remains broadly the same but may be reordered, therefore page numbers may change between editions.

Publisher Information – Usually only relevant for books, you should include the publisher name and place of publication.

Page Numbers – If you are referencing a particular part of a book then you should include the page number/s you have used in your work. Use p. 324 to indicate page 324 or pp. 324-345 to indicate multiple pages.

URL and Date Accessed – For webpages you need to include the full URL of the page (http://www… etc.) and the date you last accessed the page. The web is not static and webpages can be changed/updated/removed at any time, it is therefore important to record when you found the information you are referencing.

Once you have recorded the information, you have everything you need in order to reference correctly. Your work should be both referenced in the text and include a reference list or bibliography at the end, the in text reference is an abbreviated version of the full reference in your reference list.

Direct Quotes

If you are directly quoting in your text you should enclose the quote in quotation marks, and include author information:

“Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another.” SkillsYouNeed (2018)

The same rules apply when you are referencing indirectly, you have not included a direct quote but you have used the ideas of another source.  Reference in your text and in your reference list or bibliography at the end of your document.

These would help you with your citations. Now there is no need for you to be afraid or anxious when your mentor asks you for references in your work.